19. Samaraditya Pal in his Book "Law relating to Public Service", noticed a contrary decision of a learned single Judge, of the Bombay High Court in ABDULLA LATIFSHAH v. BOMBAY PORT TRUST, (1992) 1 LLJ 226 and at page 717 of the treatise, it was observed:
In view of Sinha, J, of the Calcutta High Court discloses a pragmatic approach based on robust commonsense' and is to be preferred to the Bombay view. The Calcutta view also finds support in principle from a subsequent three Judge Bench Judgment of the Supreme Court (B.C. Chaturvedi v. Union of India, where the possession of disproportionate assets, not satisfactorily accounted for, was held TO AMOUNT TO A MISCONDUCT AMENABLE TO DISCIPLINARY ACTION ALTHOUGH IT WAS NOT AN ENUMERATED MISCONDUCT UNDER THE conduct Rules. And more recently, relying upon the phrase "for good and sufficient reason" which often occurs in the rules, the Supreme Court has held in SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT v A.C.J. BRITTO, , that non-specified conduct may also amount to misconduct i.e., the misconduct need not be enumerated in the rules.
Intemperate language used hi reply to a charge-sheet may also amount to misconduct (SYED KHADER MOHIUDDIN v THE CHAIRMAN, TAMIL NADU PSC, (1997) II LLJ (Mad.) (DB) Misconduct may be committed outside the place of work e.g where a bank employee having consumed liquor was in a state of undress and created an ugly scene in public. (THIRUMANGALAM CO-OPERATIVE URBAN BANK LTD. v. ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER OF LABOUR, MADURAI, 1992 (6) SLR 145 (Mad.)). But mere passive participation in an illegal strike will amount to misconduct. (CHANGUNABAI CHANOO PALKAR v KHATAU MAKANJI MILLS LIMITED, (1992) II LLJ 640 (Guj.) (DB)).
20. In STATE BANK OF INDIA v T.J. PAUL, , the Apex Court held that an act prejudicial to the interest of the bank would include an act, which is likely to cause loss e.g. improper and unauthorized sanction of loan, although no loss has actually been suffered.
21. In GOVERNMENT OF A.P. v P. POSETTY, , it has been held that allegations of illegal detention of certain persons in police custody, their torture etc. by police officer for corrupt motives would amount to misconduct.
22. Wrongful claim of allowance, wilful absence from duty and sexual harassment in working place have been held to be misconduct. (See DIRECTOR GENERAL, INDIAN COUNCIL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH v. ANIL GHOSH, , UNION OF INDIA v. B. DEV, APPELLATE EXPORT PROMOTION COUNCIL v. A.K.CHOPRA, ).
23. We may also notice that in N.G. DASTANE v. SHRIKANT S. SHIVDE, , THOMAS, J, speaking for a three Judge Bench noticed the dictionary meaning of 'misconduct' and 'professional misconduct' and held:
Advocate abusing the process of Court is guilty of misconduct. When witnesses are present in Court for examination the advocate concerned has a duty to see that their examination is conducted. We remind that witnesses who come to the Court, on being called by the Court, do so as they have no other option, and such witnesses are also responsible citizens who have other work to attend for eking out livelihood. They cannot be treated as less respectable to be told to come again and again just to suit the convenience of the advocate concerned. If the advocate has any unavoidable inconvenience it is his duty to make other arrangements for examining the witnesses who is present in Court. Seeking adjournments for postponing the examination of witnesses who are present in Court even without making other arrangements for examining such witnesses is a dereliction of advocate's duty to the Court, as that would cause much harassment and hardship to the witnesses. Such dereliction if repeated would amount to misconduct of the advocate concerned. Legal profession must be purified from such abuses of the Court procedures. Tactics of filibuster, if adopted by an advocate, is also professional misconduct.
24. In STATE OF PUNJAB v. RAM SINGH EX-CONSTABLE, , the Apex Court held:
Thus it could be seen that the word 'misconduct' though not capable of precise definition, its reflection receive its connotation from the context, the delinquency in its performance and its effect on the discipline and the nature of the duty. It may involve moral turpitude, it must be improper or wrong behaviour; unlawful behaviour, wilful in character; forbidden act, a transgression of established and definite rule of action or code of conduct but not mere error of judgment, carelessness or negligence in performance of the duty; the act complained of bears forbidden quality or character, its ambit has to be construed with reference to the subject matter and the context wherein the term occurs, regard being had to the scope of the statute and the public purpose it seeks to serve. The police service is a disciplined service and it requires to maintain strict discipline. Laxity in this behalf erodes discipline in the service causing serious effect in the maintenance of law and order.